Apparently the eldest child of the marriage of Louis the Pious and his second wife Judith, Gisela was married about 836 to Eberhard, duke of Friuli, and appears in his testament probably written in about 863 or 864. On 14 April 869, as widow of Eberhard, she gave Somain in Ostrevant to her son Adalard, in a charter which also mentions her sons Raoul and B�renger [«Placuit mihi, in Dei nomine, Gisle de rebus, quas serenissimus ac piissimus rex Karolus meus, si dicere audeam, germanus, cum, exigente senioris mei dulcis memorie Evrardi negligentia, . inter tres infantes meos, Rodulfum, videlicet, et Berengarium, nec non et te, dulcissime fili, Adelarde, . » Cart. Cysoing, 7-8 (#3)]. On 2 April 870, Gisela, with her son Raoul, confirmed and augmented donations to Cysoing toward the burial of her and her daughter Engeltrude [«. ea ratione ut a die presenti idem locus ad quietem meam vel filie mee Ingeltrudis preparatus, . Nos, in Dei nomine, Gisla et filius meus, Rodulphus, hanc donationis cartulam scribere jussimus, et manibus propriis subter firmavimus. S. Adelardi.» ibid., 8-9 (#4)]. Gisela was still alive on 1 July 874, when she made another donation to Cysoing in a charter which also mentions her sons Hunroch, Adalard, and Raoul [» . ut pignora corporis senioris et conjugis mei dulcis memorie Evrardi per coadjutoris filii mei Unroch solatia, ab Italicis partibus delata mihi conferens, . Consentiens etiam utrique duorum filiorum meorum Adelardo atque Rodulpho . » ibid., 10-11 (#5)].
Date of Birth: 819�822.
Her parents were married in 819. In the other direction, she already had three children by the death of her father on 20 June 840, making it certain that she was older than her brother Charles, who was born on 13 June 823 (see the page of Charles the Bald ).
Place of Birth: Unknown.
Date of Death: After 1 July 874.
Place of Death: Unknown.
Father: Louis/Ludwig I , d. 20 June 840, Emperor.
Mother: Judith, d. 19 April 843, daughter of count Welf.
The statement of Witger that Gisela was a daughter of Louis and Judith is confirmed by one of Gisela’s own charters (undated, but ca. 874), in which she referred to Louis and Judith as her parents [ «Hludovicus ymperator genuit . Karolum et Gislam ex Iudith ymperatrice.» Witger, Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis, MGH SS 9: 303; «Ego, in nomine domini, Gisla, anniversariam reflectionem decrevi fieri pro Ludovico imperatore, patre meo, et pro Judith, imperatrice, matre mea, et pro glorioso rege Karolo, si fari audeam, germano, et pro prole mea videlicet: Hengeltrude, Hunroc, Berengario, Adelardo, Rodulpho, Heilwich, Gilla, Judich, necnon et pro omni cognatione mea. Post Resurrectionis Dominice festum die duodecimo.» Cart. Cysoing, 11 (#6)].
Spouse: m. ca. 836, Eberhard , d. 865�6, duke of Friuli.
See the page of Eberhard for details.
Eberhard, b. ca. 837, d. before 20 June 840.
Engeltrude, b. say 837�840, d. after 2 April 870.
Hunroch, b. before 20 June 840, living 1 July 874, d. 874�5?, duke of Friuli, 865-874�5;
m. Ava, daughter of duke Liutfrid .
B�renger/Berengario I , b. say 840�5, d. 7 April 924, duke of Friuli, 874�5-881; king of Italy, 881-924; Emperor, 915-924;
m. (1) say 880�890, Bertila , daughter of Suppo, duke of Spoleto ;
m. (2) before December 915, Anna, d. after May 936.
Adalard, d. after 1 July 874, held Cysoing (as abbot?).
Raoul/Rudolf, d. 5 January 892; held Cysoing (as abbot?); abbot of Saint-Vaast and Saint-Bertin, 883-892.
Heilwig/H�lvide , d. after 894;
m. (1) Hucbald, d. after 894, count of Ostrevant;
m. (2) after 894, Roger I, d. 926, count of Laon, lay-abbot of Saint-Amand.
Gisela, nun in Brescia.
Judith, d. after 863�4.
Cart. Cysoing = Ignace de Coussemaker, Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Cysoing et de ses d�pendances (Lille, 1883).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Gisela of friuli
Berengar (Berengarius), the first of that name, a Roman, duke of Friuli, born of royal Lombard lineage, and highly informed in matters of war and martial transactions, after defeating the aforesaid Louis (Ludovico), secured the sovereignty of Italy, and reigned for 4 years. But in his elevation the Italians were not unanimous, for some chose Guido, duke of Spoleto, as king of Italy. Under these newly elected princes a revolt occurred which was followed by war. In the first onslaught Guido defeated Berengar; but Berengar, being a magnanimous man and well versed in military matters, regained the field in a short time, forcing Guido to remain in his duchy. Thus he also treated Ambrosius, the count of Bergamo. And after both these warriors were slain Berengar fought the Romans. In this period a serious controversy arose between the Germans, Italians and French for the possession of the empire. This was followed by a severe war, resulting in great property damage and loss of life before it ceased. The Romans and Italians, however, managed to retain the sovereignty in their country. Some say that Berengar was crowned as emperor by Pope Lando.[Berengar I, king of Italy, was the son of Eberhard, margrave of Friuli and Gisela, daughter of emperor Louis the Pious. Between 871 and 875 he succeeded his brother in the March of Friuli, and after the deposition of Charles III, he assumed the throne as grand-nephew of Charles the Great. In 888 he was crowned as king of Italy at Pavia, but found a dangerous rival in Guido the duke of Spoleto, who, after a decisive victory on the Trebbia, in 889, likewise assumed the kingship and attained to the imperial crown at Rome in 891. Berengar and Pope Formosus called upon the German king Arnulf for help against Guido. Arnulf came and occupied Lombardy in 894, but soon returned to Germany. During Arnulf’s second invasion of Italy in 896 Berengar opened negotiations with Lambert, son of Guido, and after the retirement of the Germans, entered into a treaty with Lambert by which he secured northeastern Italy as far as Adda. On Lambert’s death in 898, Berengar aspired to the entire empire. However, about 899, he was defeated by the Magyars on the Brenta, and after 902 was attacked by Louis of Burgundy, who assumed the Italian throne and the imperial purple. In 905 Berengar surprised Louis at Verona, and blinded him, and in 915 Berengar was crowned as emperor by Pope John X. Berengar maintained himself in office for 8 years, but not without continued warfare with the nobles, who finally offered the Italian crown to king Rudolph II of Upper Burgundy. On July 17, 923, Rudolph decisively defeated Berengar, who then called upon the Hungarians for assistance, thereby estranging the few who were still faithful to him. At Verona, which had always been loyal to him, a sworn confederacy was organized, in consequence of which Berengar lost his life on April 7, 924.]
Hugh (Hugo), count of Arles, ruled in Italy for ten years after Berengar. He was elected in opposition to Rudolph, the Burgundian, who had robbed Berengar of his empire. Rudolph abandoned the controversy and returned to Burgundy. Now this Hugh, having been warned by Rudolph, entertained mistrust and hatred against those who had elected him; and accordingly, he ordered one of his generals to take charge of the army while he sent the rest into exile. But the exiles, as well as other Italians at home, incited Arnold, duke of Bavaria, to come to Italy against Hugh with a well organized army. Hugh took up arms and defeated him. Not long afterwards he died.
Hugh (Hugo), king of Italy, son of Thietbald, duke of Provence, and Bertha, daughter of Lothair II, king of Lorraine, maintained a position of leadership in Lower Burgundy, even while the blinded emperor Louis III, its king, was still living; and answering a call for assistance from the enemies of king Rudolph in Italy, Hugh was elevated to the kingship of Italy at Pavia in July 926. After the death of Louis, in 928, Hugh secured his supremacy in Lower Burgundy still further. However, in 933, he ceded that country to Rudolph, who in turn gave up his claims to Italy. In Italy Hugh ruled with great vigor, and with harshness and cruelty. Spiritual and temporal offices he gave to his bastards and Burgundian favorites.
In the last years of the emperor Lambert a coalition had been formed among the Roman nobles. At its head stood Adelbert, count of Tuscany, supported by the influence and intrigues of the notorious Theodora, who was connected with some of the most powerful families of Rome, and who by means of her infamous daughters, Theodora the younger and Marozia, drew an additional number to the party. Marozia was notorious as the mistress of one pope, the mother of a second, and the grandmother of a third. The account of her career constitutes the most morally problematic page in the history of the papacy. On the death of Berengar Marozia sought to strengthen herself by marrying Hugh, whom her son, Pope John XI, had recognized as king of Italy. But the alliance proved of no avail to either party. Marozia introduced Hugh into the Castle Angelo; but the Romans under the leadership of Alberic, Marozia’s illegitimate son, refused to permit Hugh to enter Rome, and confined him to the Castle from which he was soon driven by Alberic. Marozia was cast into prison, and the pope restricted to his spiritual functions.
Equally unsuccessful were Hugh’s efforts to deprive Rudolph’s son Conrad of Burgundy, even though Hugh and married Rudolph’s widow Bertha with that in view. He meditated a scheme to imprison and to blind Berengar, margrave of Ivrea, but in this project he worked his own downfall. Berengar made a timely escape, taking refuge with Otto I, emperor of Germany. In 945 Berengar returned to Italy with a small army raised in Germany, and in a brief time won over the discontented nobles and assumed the sovereignty. Hugo and his son Lothair, whom he had made co-ruler, retained but the shadow of sovereignty, while Berengar exercised all the authority. Dissatisfied with this situation, Hugh returned to Provence in 946, and died at Arles in 947. When he left Italy his son Lothair remained as the reigning king.
Berengar (Berengarius) the Second reigned after Hugh (Ugonem) for 7 years. He so confounded the Hungarians that they retired to Etruria; and after they had devastated its cities they carried off a great amount of plunder. And while Berengar was considering how the Italian sovereignty might be restored by common consent, the Italian tyrants who feared his power and might, sought to prevent this; and they requested Rudolph, the Burgundian king to march into Italy. Rudolph came and drove out Berengar, and reigned there three years. But vengeance was not withheld from the Italians for long, for the Hungarians to whom Berengar had fled, came into Italy under the leadership of Salardus, and ravaged everything on the way. They besieged and captured Pavia, consuming everything with fire and sword. Finally this Berengar died in Hungary, or (as some historians state) in Bavaria.
Berengar II. According to reliable sources the margrave of Friuli who became king of Italy as Berengar I and was assassinated in 924, and the margrave of Ivrea, who assumed the sovereignty as Berengar II, and was deposed by Otto I, the German emperor in 966, are the only two kings of that name who entered upon the sovereignty of Italy. Berengar II was a grandson of Berengar I through the latter’s daughter Gisela. The person here referred to as Berengar II is neither of these.
Further confusion arises in the Chronicle by the introduction of a third Berengar; but what has been noted as to the second is equally true of the third. That the chronicler himself was confused in these matters becomes still more apparent from Folio CLXXVII recto, where “Berengar IV” is introduced, whose biography there corresponds to that of the real Berengar II (margrave of Ivrea), upon whose career a historical note will be found there. Schedel admits the confusion but blames it upon the uncertainty of his authority. It will be noted that in introducing “Berengar II,” at Folio CLXXVI recto, Schedel assigns no parentage and no place of birth to this sovereign; nor does he specify the date of his death, nor his place of death with certainty. He introduces “Berengar III” as the grandson of Berengar I, but does not know how he came to Italy, whether with an army, with the help of the Italians, or through the assistance of others, and adds that no one has explained the matter. He cautiously states that ‘some write’ that he reigned eight years. It is difficult to even speculate upon the matter.
It is difficult to even speculate upon the matter. Different sources may have presented varying accounts, resulting in duplication, and giving the impression that there were four Italian kings of this name instead of two.
Berengar (Berengarius) the Third, grandson of Berengar I, came into Italy, and in the year of the Lord 935, secured the sovereignty. Whether he came there with a large army, or with the help of the Italians, or through the assistance of others, no one has written. But it is known that he came to Italy in the time of Pope Stephen VII. In the meantime the Saracens living about Mount Garganum overran the people of Apuleia and Calabria in a new revolt; and they besieged the city of Beneventum, captured and plundered it, and set it on fire. And as the Roman provinces had not yet been attacked by them, the Romans and Italians hurriedly collected an army under Count Guido as general. With this army he proceeded against the enemy, compelling the enemy to retreat. This Berengar made peace and entered into an alliance with the Hungarians, so that they directed against other peoples the raging madness which they had for ever so long practiced against the Italians. Some write that this Berengar reigned for eight years.[See note to “Berengar II,” above.]
Gisela, daughter of Louis the Pious
Gisela (b.821) was the youngest daughter of Louis the Pious and his second wife, Judith of Bavaria. She married the powerful and influential Evrard , Duke of Friuli, later canonized as Saint Evrard, with whom she had several children including Berengar, King of Italy and Margrave of Friuli . Gisela was renowned her piety and virtue, much like her namesake ( Gisela ), the beloved sister of Charlemagne , who had chosen the religious life from girlhood.
Her dowry consisted of many rich domains including the fisc of Cysoing ; located at the center of the country of Pèvele, Cysoing was one of the most beautiful fiscs in the region and became one of her and Evrard’s regular residences. They founded a monastery there, which was not completed until after their deaths.
The nunnery San Salvatore was given to her after Ermengarde, wife of Lothair I. For a time she served as both abbess and «rectrix».
Also, she presented to the Church the mosaics which still exist in the cathedral at Aquileia . They contain (what is most remarkable for that time) a Crucifixion, the Virgin, St. George, the portrait of Gisela, and various allegorical figures. [«Handbook of Painting: The Italian Schools» by Franz Kugler, Margaret Hutton, Charles Lock Eastlake.]
She dedicated herself to the education of her and Evrard’s many children.
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Gisela of friuli
‘Ivrea1’ Index links to: Lead / SectionUploaded: 17.10.02 / Updated: 12.05.03
|The initial generations are taken from handwritten notes taken from ROYL (which is often not easy to read) and are likely to contain transcription errors.|
|2.||Desiderius/Didier, King of the Lombards|
|B.||Everhard, Count of Friuli|
|i.||Berengarius, Count of Friuli|
|a.||Everhard, Margrave of Friuli (b c820, d 16.12.866)|
|m. (836) Gisele (b c819, d 01.07.876, dau of Louis I ‘the Fair’ or ‘the Pious’, Holy Roman Emperor)|
|(1)||Berengar I, Margrave of Friuli (d c923)|
|(A)||Gisela of Friuli||EGHJRSWY|
|m. Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea (d c924) @@ below||EGHJRSWY|
|ii.||Wido, Count (d after 827)|
|This appears to be the same person as Amadeus who is reported by GenEU as the «first proved ancestor of this house», referring to the ancestors of Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea. GenEU provides Adalbert’s descendants but ROYL provides the connection through Adalbert’s brother Manfred to Eriprandus and the house of Visconti.|
|m. Rodalinde / Yolande|
|a.||Wido (d 889)|
|b.||Anscarius, Margrave of Ivrea (d 898/892)|
|(1)||Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea, Count of Parma (d c924)|
|m1. Gisela of Friuli (dau of Berengar I, Margrave of Friuli) @@ above|
|(A)||Berengar II, Count of Milan, Margrave of Ivrea, King of Italy (b c900, d 06.07.966)|
|m. (930/1) Willa of Arles (b c910, d after 966, dau of Boson, Count of Arles, Marquess of Tuscany)|
|(i)||Adalbert, Margrave of Ivrea, King of Italy (b 932/6, d 972/5)|
|m. Gerberga (d 986/91, dau of Otho/Leotald, Count of Macon and Besancon)|
|(a)||Otho Guillaume, Count of Burgundy, Macon, Nevers, etc (b 958/9, d 21.09.1026)||EGHJSWY|
|He obtained the County of Burgundy through his stepfather Henry, Duke of Lower Burgundy (his mother’s second husband).|
|m1. (975/80) Ermetrude de Roucy (b c950, d 1002/5, dau of Ragnold de Roucy)||EGHJSWY|
|m2. (before 1016) Adelaide/Blanche of Anjou (d 1026)|
|(ii)||Wido, Margreave of Ivrea (d 965)|
|(iii)||Cunrad/Cono, Margrave of Milan and Milan, Duke of Spoleto and Camerino|
|m. Richilda (dau of Arduin Glabrio of Turin)|
|(iv)||Gisla of Ivrea, a nun (a 965)|
|(v)||Gerberga/Gilberga of Ivrea (b 945, d 986)||HJSY|
|m. (before 08.961) Aleramo, Marquis of Liguria (d 991)||HJSY|
|(vi)||Suzanne / Rosele of Ivrea (b 945, d 26.01.1003)||EGHJRSWY|
|m1. (c968) Arnulf II, Count of Flanders (b 961/2, d 30.03.987)||EGHJRSWY|
|m2. (988, div 992) Robert II ‘the Pious’, King of France (b 27.03.972, d 20.07.1031)|
|m2. (914) Ermengarde di Lucca (b c900, d after 29.02.932, dau of Adalbert II, Marquis of Tuscany)|
|(B)||Anscar II, Margrave of Ivrea, Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (b c915, d 940)|
|(i)||Amadeus of Mosezzo had issue|
|m. (959/62) Guntilda (dau of Roger, Count of Auriate)|
|(C)||Adalbert, Count of Pombia (a 962) probably father of .|
|(i)||Dado, Count of Pombia and Milan had issue|
|m. Bertha / Erminzi|
|(a)||Obizzo / Amizzo|
|m. Mathildis (dau of Luitolph, Duke of Schwabia)|
|((1))||Bonifacius, Count of Milan|
|m. Gisela (dau of Count Adalbert)|
|((A))||Eriprandus, Viscount of Milan (d 1037/67, 2nd son)||HS|
|((B))+||other issue including Azzo|
|m. Charles, Duke of Bavaria|
|D.||Gerperga (‘Desideria’) (d 776)|
|m. (770, div 771, sp) Charlemagne, King of the Franks, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (b 02.04.742, d 28.01.814)|
|m. Carloman (cousin of Charlemagne)|
|F.+||other issue — Afprandas, Ansilberga, Adapergis|
Main source(s): ROYL (tables CXXXIX, CXL, CCCIX), GenEU (Ivrea1)
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Gisela e Franz, “ambasciatori onorari” del Friuli con i loro libri
Gisela Hopfmüller e Franz Hlavac potremmo definirli gli “ambasciatori onorari” (esistono i consoli onorari, perché allora non anche gli ambasciatori onorari?) del Friuli in Austria. Abbiamo scritto più volte di loro in questo blog. Sono entrambi noti giornalisti austriaci, hanno lavorato per l’Orf, la tv pubblica. Ora sono in pensione e dividono la loro vita tra Vienna e Varmo, in provincia di Udine, dove hanno comprato casa.
Da quando sono a riposo hanno incominciato a lavorare più di prima, scrivendo a quattro mani ben tre libri sul Friuli. Torniamo a parlarne, perché l’ultimo dei tre, intitolato “Unsere Friaul Rezepte” (“Le nostre ricette friulane”), è stato per alcune settimane tra i 10 libri più venduti in Austria, tra il quarto e il quinto posto, a seconda delle classifiche, che sono state pubblicate non solo dalla “Kleine Zeitung” — che, essendo il giornale della Carinzia e della Stiria, ha un occhio di riguardo per la nostra regione – ma anche dall’autorevole quotidiano “Die Presse” e da “Profil”, il più importante settimanale di informazione austriaco, che stanno entrambi a Vienna e per i quali, quindi, il Friuli-Venezia Giulia è una terra remota, di cui normalmente ci si occupa soltanto per andare in vacanza e basta.
Che persino nella capitale austriaca le “Rezepte” di Gisela e Franz abbiano scalato le classifiche dei libri più venduti è la prova provata dell’interesse che i due italo-austriaci (o austro-italiani?) hanno saputo suscitare nel loro pubblico. Già il fatto che un libro di cucina finisca nelle classifiche dei best-seller non è di tutti i giorni. Lo è di meno, poi, quando riguarda la cucina di una regione che è praticamente sconosciuta all’estero. Facciamocene una ragione: la cucina italiana è nota in tutto il mondo, ma i piatti che vanno per la maggiore oltrefrontiera appartengono ad altre regioni.
Gisela Hopfmüller e Franz Hlavac sono stati capaci di colmare questa lacuna. Non soltanto hanno suscitato l’interesse dei lettori, ma sono stati invitati a parlare dei loro libri, del Friuli-Venezia Giulia – fatto di gastronomia, certo, ma anche di storia, di cultura, di paesaggi naturali, di uomini e di donne – in tutti i Länder austriaci, fatta eccezione il Vorarlberg, che è il far-west dell’Austria, anzi, più Svizzera che Austria. Dal 2011, anno di uscita del loro primo lavoro intitolato “Unser Friaul”, hanno tenuto oltre 90 presentazioni, di cui tante a Vienna e altre a Linz, St. Pölten, Salisburgo, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Graz, Eisenstadt, vale a dire in tutti i capoluoghi di Land, e in molte località minori. Sono stati intervistati più di 30 volte dalla radio nazionale e una decina di volte anche dalla tv. L’Orf ha mandato addirittura una troupe in Friuli, per farsi accompagnare dai coniugi Hlavac nei luoghi descritti nei loro libri. Ne è venuto fuori un reportage di 30 minuti.
Qual è la ragione di tale successo? “Penso che i nostri libri siano amati – ci risponde Gisela Hopfmüller — perché raccontiamo di una bellissima zona, riferiamo le nostre esperienze personali, le cose che abbiamo vissuto noi direttamente, le nostre amicizie, l’ospitalità dei friulani. Crediamo che dalle nostre pagine emerga l’amore che proviamo per il Friuli. Perché i nostri libri non sono semplici guide turistiche o gastronomiche, ma molto di più”.
Non sappiamo se l’Azienda del turismo del Friuli Venezia Giulia si renda conto di quanto valga la testimonianza che Gisela Hopfmüller e Franz Hlavac stanno dando del Friuli. Di quanto sarebbero costati quei 30 minuti dedicati a questa regione dalla tv pubblica austriaca. Forse quelli dell’Agenzia non sanno neppure chi siano i due austriaci trapiantati a Varmo. Farebbero bene a incontrarli e ad esprimere loro la riconoscenza, conferendo loro il titolo di “ambasciatori onorari” del Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Non esiste un titolo del genere? Se lo inventino!